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Citrus long-horned beetle

Date:2017-09-09 16:57

Citrus long-horned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis(Forster), family Cerambycidae

Host range

Citrus long-horned beetle develops in more than 100 plants, including fruit trees and ornamental trees. Citrus tree is a common host. Pecan and walnut are severely affected. Apple, pear, fig, cherry are also hosts. Common ornamental trees include willow, poplar, locust and Casuarina spp. Farmers need pay attention if citrus long-horned beetle hosts are in vicinity of their orchards.


Citrus long-horned beetleis native to China, Japan and Korean Peninsula and has recently has been found in some south-east Asia countries. It is an important quarantine pest of several countries. Citrus long-horned beetle causes most damage in provinces in southern China, including Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shaanxi, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, and Jiangxi.


Adult and larva of citrus long-horned beetle both damage trees. Adults feed on epidermis and cortex of shoots before mating. Afterward, adults mate and females lay eggs. Eggs are usually laid at the base of trunk and larvae burrow into trunk after hatching. Although adults cause very visible damage (broken branches, ringbarked limbs)  larvae feeding internally in the base of the trunk and roots the most cause serious damage on. They feed and tunnel in the trunk and make irregular channels. Frass is usually discharged to the outside of the trunk through the hole. Uptake of water and nutrients is negatively affected and tree vigor gradually decreases until the  trees die.


Life cycle

Citrus long-horned beetle has 1 generation per year in southern China.  In northern China, 1 generation may take 2 to 3 years.. Overwintering larvae start to move at March and April when the temperature is over 15℃. Adults usually emerge from May to July. In some hot areas, adults may be found found from April to October. The number of eggs produced depends on what host the females feed on. Eggs hatch from June to October and the larvae feed through winter and spring.


Adult: Body length is 2-4cm, smooth and black with several white spots on wings. The pronotum is rough (unlike its close relative Anoplophora glabripennis which has a smooth pronotum). Females are slightly bigger than males. Antennae are black with a white spot on each segment. Male antennae are two times longer than body length, while females antenna is only slightly longer than body.

Egg: Oval shape, 5-7mm in length. Newly-laid eggs are creamy-white, and then turn to white-yellowish when they are going to hatch.

Larva: Newly-hatched larva is 5mm and can grow up to 50mm long. Thorax width is around 11mm, creamy white and legless. Head color is amber.

Pupa: The New-formed pupae are white-yellowish, then turn dark brown or black. Pupae length is 25-30mm and the width is 10mm.

Similar pest: Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

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